U.S. fire statistics

Trends | Causes | Where fires occur | Who fire impacts | Firefighters and fire departments

The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United States. Armed with this data, the fire service can use it to:

Fires 1,389,500
in 2011
from 2002
Deaths 3,005
in 2011
from 2002
Injuries 17,500
in 2011
from 2002
$ Loss $11.7 billion
in 2011
* from 2002
* Adjusted to 2011 dollars
See: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on U.S. fire loss.

  • Fires
  • Deaths
  • Injuries
  • $ Loss
* Adjusted to 2011 dollars
Download data for all fires, deaths, injuries and dollar loss estimates.

What are the causes of fires?

Read our reports on the causes of residential, nonresidential, vehicle and outside fires, and fires in other places.


Residential fires

Residential building fire causes (2012)
48.7% Cooking
12.1% Heating
5.6% Unintentional, careless

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Cooking 48.7%
Heating 12.1%
Unintentional, careless 5.6%
Electrical malfunction 5.4%
Intentional 5%
Open flame 4.9%
Appliances 4.4%
Other heat 3.5%
Smoking 2.6%
Exposure 2.2%
Natural 2%
Cause under investigation 1.2%
Other equipment 1.1%
Equipment malfunction 0.8%
Playing with heat source 0.6%
Causes of fatal residential building fires (2012)
Causes of residential building fires resulting in injuries (2012)

Nonresidential fires

Nonresidential building fire causes (2012)
29.3% Cooking
10.5% Intentional
9.8% Unintentional, careless

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Cooking 29.3%
Intentional 10.5%
Unintentional, careless 9.8%
Heating 8%
Electrical malfunction 6.9%
Open flame 6.5%
Other heat 5.4%
Appliances 4.5%
Other equipment 4.4%
Exposure 4.3%
Natural 4.1%
Equipment malfunction 2%
Smoking 2.3%
Cause under investigation 1.5%
Playing with heat source 0.4%

Causes of vehicle and outside fires

Causes of vehicle fires
219,000 vehicle fires in 2011
Causes of outside fires
597,500 outside fires in 2011

Where do fires occur?

Read our reports on where fires occur.


Property types

“Residential” is the leading property type for fire deaths (75.7%), fire injuries (79.1%) and fire dollar loss (52.2%).

Fires by general property type (2011)
29.1% Residential
8% Nonresidential
13.3% Vehicle
44% Outside
5.7% Other
Download data on where fires occur

Who does fire impact the most?

Read our reports on who fire impacts the most.

2011 Texas, California and Pennsylvania led the nation in number of fire deaths.
District of Columbia, Mississippi and Alabama had the most deaths per million population in the U.S.

View statistics on national and state fire deaths, fire death rates, and risk of dying in a fire.

Deaths Injuries
61% 58%
39% 42%

More men die and are injured
in fires than women.

National fire death rate: 11

National fire injury rate: 56.2

per million population

Gender and race

African American males (21.5) and American Indian males (14.8) have the highest fire death rates per million population.


People 85 and older have the highest fire death rate. (49.2)

People 30-34 have the highest fire injury rate. (71.4)

More information on fire death rates for older adults and children.

Download fire death and injury data by gender, age, and race

Firefighters and fire departments

Read our reports on fire departments and firefighters.

Fire departments

There were an estimated 30,052 fire departments in 2013 (all career: 2,477; mostly career: 1,971; mostly volunteer: 5,797; all volunteer: 19,807).

See: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on fire departments.


There were an estimated 1,140,750 firefighters in 2013 (career: 354,600; volunteer: 786,150).

See: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on firefighters.

On-duty firefighter deaths in 2013

47 Volunteer
29 Career
30 Wildland agency
106 Firefighters died while on duty.
77 Firefighters died from activities related to an emergency incident.
55 Firefighters died from activities at a fire scene.
36 Firefighters died from heart attacks.
14 Firefighters died while responding to or returning from emergency incidents.
9 Firefighters died as a result of vehicle crashes.

Firefighter injuries

29,760 firefighters were injured on the fireground in 2013.
Visit: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on firefighter injuries.

Report: Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries Reported to the National Fire Incident Reporting System (2010–2012) November 2014, PDF 793 KB

How we calculate fire loss statistics

These documents describe the data sources and methodology we use to calculate our fire loss estimates.


Data sources we use to calculate statistics

More resources for statistics