Subject guide: active shooter incidents
This resource page allows you to browse our collection materials drawn from federal, state and local governments as well as non-governmental organizations, and professional and scholarly publications. Many of these resources are available online but not all. Fire and EMS: if you need assistance getting access to a copy of any of these materials, please contact the library at 301-447-1046.
The U.S. Fire Administration released in 2013 a publication that highlights new Fire/EMS operational response considerations for active shooter events: Fire/emergency medical services department operational considerations and guide for active shooter and mass casualty incidents
Major incidents and after action reports
- Aurora Colorado Fire Department. 2013. Century Theatre shooting: preliminary incident analysis.
- Heightman, A. J. 1999. "Assault on Columbine". JEMS.
- Jefferson County Sheriff's Office (Colo.), Kathi Grider, Rick L. Young, Kathleen Battan, and Jennifer Watson. 2000. Columbine High School shootings, April 20, 1999 the Jefferson County Sheriff's Office report. Golden, Colo: The Office. View online.
- Paros, Sophia. 2012. "Lessons learned: the mass shootings in Tucson". Domprep Journal.
- Park Couny, CO Emergency Management. 2006. Platte Canyon High School Schooting After-Action Report Download report.
- Sedensky, Stephen J. "Report of the State's Attorney on the Shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School.." Download report.
- United States Fire Administration, and TriData Corporation. 1999. Wanton violence at Columbine High School, April 20, 1999: special report. [Emmitsburg, Md.]: Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire Administration. Download report.
- U.S. Fire Administration. (2008).Northern Illinois University shooting, DeKalb, Illinois, February 14, 2008. Emmitsburg, Md.: U.S. Fire Administration. Download report.
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2010). Campus attacks: Targeted violence affecting institutions of higher education. Washington, D.C: The Department. Download report.
- University of Texas at Austin. 2010. University of Texas at Austin Active Shooter/Suicide After Action Report. Download report.
- Virginia Tech Review Panel. 2007. Mass shootings at Virginia Tech, April 16, 2007: report of the review panel presented to Governor Kaine, Commonwealth of Virginia. s.l: The Panel. Download report.
- Wallace, Mark. 2011. "Lone wolf/active shooter: attack on Texas public safety building" . Fire Engineering.
- Washington Post. 2011. Map and graphical timeline of Tucson shooting.
Planning and preparation
- Atwater, P. A. (2012). Force protection for fire fighters warm zone operations at paramilitary style active shooter incidents in a multi-hazard environment as a fire service core competency. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Download thesis.
- Ergenbright, CHarles E. and Sean K. Hubbard. 2012. Defeating the active shooter: applying facility upgrades in order to mitigate the effects of active shooters in high occupancy facilities. Monterey, Ca : Naval Postgraduate School. Download thesis.
- Kimbrough, Kem, Bill Lowe, and Bobby Lowe. 2012. "Active shooter mitigation: saving lives before the shots ring out". IAEM Bulletin.
- Ludwig, Gary G. 2012. "The active shooter: a special challenge - plan and practice your fire-EMS response to mass-casualty shootings". Firehouse.
- Morrissey, Jim. 2011. "EMS response to active-shooter incidents: how EMS can train to better respond to these inevitable unfortunate incidents". EMS World.
- New York City Police Department. Active shooter: Recommendations and analysis for risk mitigation.
- Rowe, Shirley Kathleen. 2009. The influence of shootings on change in emergency planning at Texas four-year colleges and universities. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Texas at Dallas, 2009.
- U.S. Secret Service (2002).Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. Washington, D.C: U.S. Secret Service. Download report.
- Atwater, Paul. (2013). When standby isn't sufficient: the mission of the fire service must evolve to include "warm zone" operations at active shooter incidents. Fire-Rescue Magazine.
- Augustine, James J. 2012. "Target audience: a mass shooting requires cooperative response" . EMS World.
- Baldanza, Mauro V. 2005. "Fire department response to "active shooter" incidents" . Fire Engineering.
- Davis, Kent P. 2009. Charlotte Fire Department responses to active shooter incidents - a critical analysis. Emmitsburg, MD: National Fire Academy.
- Donovan, Patrick N. 2008. Puyallup Fire & Rescue's response to active school shooting incidents. Emmitsburg, MD: National Fire Academy.
- Deuchar, George. 2009. "Active shooting response: the call taker's role". 9-1-1 Magazine.
- Fletcher, William. 2010. "Responding to active shooter incidents" . Fire Engineering.
- Furey, Barry T. 2012. "Dispatch protocols for active-shooter incidents: coordinating, collecting and sharing vital information". Firehouse.
- Greenberg, Sheldon F. 2007. "Active shooters on college campuses: conflicting advice, roles of the individual and first responder, and the need to maintain perspective". Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.
- Hamilton, S. C. (2012). Responding to scenes of violence. Fire Engineering.
- Kimbrough, Kem, Bill Lowe, and Bobby Lowe. 2012. "Active shooter response: reacting to the screams and gunfire". IAEM Bulletin.
- Kimbrough, Kem, Bill Lowe, and Bobby Lowe. 2012. "Active shooter preparedness: stay alert to stay alive" . IAEM Bulletin.
- Lessons Learned and Information Sharing. 2014. Trend analysis: Onsite incident management, medical response, public safety and security.
- Lickiss, Patrick. 2011. "EMS, law enforcement and active shooters: how nontactical crews can support special operations" . EMS World.
- Ludwig, GAry G. (2013). The active shooter: coming to a community near you? Response tactics changing as more incidents occur. Firehouse.
- Renaud, C. E. (2010). Making sense in the edge of chaos: A framework for effective initial response efforts to large-scale incidents. Master’s Thesis. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Description | Fulltext.
- Rielage, Robert R. 2009. "In the line of fire: the successful response to the recent mass shootings at Fort Hood and in Orlando may change the policies that will govern similar incidents in the future". Fire Chief.
- Russell, Sander E. and Bernard J. Klaene. (2013) Strength in numbers: how the fire service can play a key role in an integrated approach to responding to mass-casualty shootings. NFPA Journal.
- Smith, E. Reed, Blake Iselin, and W. Scott McKay. 2009. "Toward the sound of shooting: Arlington County, VA., rescue task force represents a new medical response model to active shooter incidents". JEMS.
- Stivi, Alon. 2006. "First responders: active shooter intervention". Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International.
- U.S. Fire Administration. Fire/Emergency Medical Services Department Operational Considerations and Guide for Active Shooter and Mass Casualty Incidents.
- Vernon, August. 2012. Response priorities for mass violence incidents. Fire Engineering. Read online.
Recovery and aftermath
- Jenkins, Sharon Rae. 1997. Coping, routine activities, and recovery from acute distress among emergency medical personnel after a mass shooting incident. Emmitsburg, MD: National Emergency Training Center.
- Sattler, David N., Katy Larpenteur, and Gayle Shipley. 2011. "Active shooter on campus: evaluating text and e-mail warning message effectiveness" . Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management.
- Strand, Russell, Karina Felices, and Kenneth Williams. 2010. "Critical incident stress management (CISM) in support of special agents and other first responders responding to the Fort Hood shooting: summary and recommendations". International Journal of Emergency Mental Health.
- The impact of kidnapping, shooting and torture on children - Center for Study of Traumatic Stress.
- Massingham, Gordon, and Michael Cataldo. 2009. Active shooter rapid-response. Edgartown, MA: Emergency Film Group.
- Brown, Brooks, and Rob Merritt. 2002. No easy answers: the truth behind death at Columbine. New York: Lantern Books.
- Campbell, John E. 2012. Tactical medicine essentials. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
- Favre, G. J., & Mazzei, M. (2011). Safety: responding to violence. 24-7 FIRE. (Second Quarter 2011.)
- Sharp, Helen M. 2009. School crisis case studies. Volume 2, Before another school shooting occurs. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
- Smith, James P. 2012. Strategic and tactical considerations on the fireground. Boston: Pearson.
Links of interest: guides and checklists
Links of interest: psychological first aid