When you write a research paper, you are continuing a conversation with the scholars who came before you. Citing their work is a way of acknowledging and thanking them, and allowing your readers to access their works.
You must give credit to the authors and researchers who influenced your work and document any data or other information you use that is not considered common knowledge.
The NETC Library offers a class on APA citations and how to paraphrase, summarize and quote. Call or email the library if you are interested. Our toll-free number is 800-638-1821.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of Journal). Article title with just the first word, words following a colon or em dash, and proper nouns capitalized. Name of Journal, Volume (issue), page # range if digitized from print version (PDF). doi: if there is one
For articles with 3-7 authors, list all the authors separated by commas. Use an ampersand (&) to separate the last author from the preceding authors (as above). For articles with two authors, insert an ampersand between the first and second author.
A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique number assigned to some journal articles. A DOI provides a stable link to an article. If you’re using a database, such as EBSCO Host, you can generally find the article’s DOI listed on your search results.
Jiang, J., Wang, P., Lung, W., Guo, L., & Li, M. (2012). A GIS-based generic real-time risk assessment framework and decision tools for chemical spills in the river basin. Journal Of Hazardous Materials, 227/228, 280-291. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.051
If there is no DOI, list the homepage URL for the journal instead.
Forsting, S. L. (2004). Environmental health professionals and emergency preparedness: Canadian perspectives. Journal Of Environmental Health, 67(4), 31-35. Retrieved from http://www.neha.org/publications/journal-environmental-health
Oreshan, J. & Toruno, K. (2012) Chemical suicides: The dangers posed to responders & the public. Public Safety Communications, 78(2), 40-44.
“In most cases, it’s not until an emergency responder is transported to a hospital from exposure that a chemical suicide is recognized” (Oreshan & Toruno, 2012, p.42).
According to Oreshan and Toruno (2012), “In most cases, it’s not until an emergency responder is transported to a hospital from exposure that a chemical suicide is recognized” (p.42).
Oreshan and Toruno (2012) state:
Chemical suicides can pose a great danger to responders and bystanders because a cloud of toxic gas may remain at the scene, waiting to be released as a door or window is opened. The materials used in the suicide may continue to off-gas for an extended period of time after initial generation, and toxic gases may remain in the victim’s lungs, clothing or in the confined space. These gases are lethal at low concentrations and often can’t be easily detected. (p.44)
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of webpage. Retrieved from webpage URL
Masys, A. (2015). Disaster management: Enabling resilience. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/bmxlYmtfXzg4MzM1MF9fQU41?sid=f13e07ad-329f-4eee-8a77-e0ed2e58a933@sessionmgr103&vid=0&format=EB&rid=1
United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Fire Administration, National Fire Academy. (2015, November 15) Executive fire officer program handbook. Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/efop_guidelines.pdf
Rutledge, P. (2013, March 7). Disaster preparedness [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UN6ma7Titso
Kimball, A. (2016, August 22). Research foundation study developed a prototype tool to measure environmental and economic impact of a fire event [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://community.nfpa.org/community/nfpa-today/blog/2016/08/22/research-foundation-study-developed-a-prototype-tool-to-measure-environmental-and-economic-impact-of-a-fire-event
Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of book. City, State: Publisher.
Heifetz, R. A. & Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of leading. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Ursano, R. J., McCaughey, B. G. & Fullerton, C. S. (Eds.). (1994). Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Shalev, A. Y. (1994) Debriefing following traumatic exposure. In R. J. Ursano, B. G. McCaughey & C. S. Fullerton (Eds.), Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos. (pp. 201-219). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Greenwald, H. P. (2000). Civil liberties. In E. F. Borgatta & R. J. V. Montgomery (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sociology. (Vol 1, pp. 314-319). New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
Author. Z. A. (Year). Title of article capitalizing the first word of title, the first word after a colon or em dash, and proper nouns. Title of Periodical Capitalized in Title Case, Volume (Issue), page numbers.
Eyre, A. (2015). Communication and fire service organizations: New reflections on an old challenge. International Fire Service Journal of Leadership and Management, 9, 11-20.
Minster, K. (2016, March). Getting smarter about fire safety. International Fire Protection Magazine, 16-17.
Bacon, J. (2016, August 23). Don’t be lulled by relatively mild fire season. USA Today, p 1A.