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NFIRS COVID-19 Special Study dashboard

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This page presents a snapshot of statistics reported by U.S. fire departments participating in the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) COVID-19 Special Study.

From Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 2020, the COVID-19 Special Study collected 3,688,006 responses.



fire departments

fire service personnel responses to confirmed or suspected COVID-19 incidents

Incident types with Special Study code 3,688,006 reported responses

1Rescue and EMS62.90%
2Good Intent11.47%
3False Alarm/Calls7.96%
4Service Calls7.89%

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Incident type categoryReported responses% of responses
Rescue and EMS (300-381)2,319,70562.90%
Good Intent (600-672)422,96611.47%
False Alarm/Calls (700-751)293,5157.96%
Service Calls (500-571)290,8767.89%
Fires (100-173)187,3335.08%
Hazardous Condition (400-482)142,1743.86%
Special Incident Type (900-911)13,6310.37%
Severe Weather and Natural Disaster (800-815)12,2690.33%
Overpressure Rupture, Explosion, Overheat (200-251)5,1840.14%
Blank Incident Type3530.01%

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Special Study codeReported responses% of responses
1 – Yes, COVID-19 was suspected150,7594.09%
2 – Yes, COVID-19 was confirmed44,1131.20%
3 – No, COVID-19 was not a factor2,464,61666.83%
4 – Unknown1,028,51827.89%

Table may not total 100% due to rounding.

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COVID-19 Special Study codeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecTotal
1 – Yes, COVID-19 was suspected.1492108,37834,21624,51018,14019,81015,0118,5106,3589,2836,184150,759
2 – Yes, COVID-19 was confirmed.499625,3444,7883,9156,3924,6502,5612,8987,1305,46044,113
3 – No, COVID-19 was not a factor.21,68923,85368,087297,047362,546379,627364,757329,231247,879153,212138,37278,3162,464,616
4 – Unknown.5,2096,56316,974107,773138,585143,518154,406146,534110,11777,42573,33448,0801,028,518

Reported responses by incident type category and Special Study code

Incident type category1 – Yes, COVID-19 suspected2 – Yes, COVID-19 confirmed3 – No, COVID-19 not a factor4 – UnknownTotal
Fires (100-173)518248160,89825,669187,333
Overpressure Rupture, Explosion, Overheat Calls (200-251)21134,3118395,184
Rescue and EMS Calls (300-381)138,40840,0821,388,498752,7172,319,705
Hazardous Condition Calls (400-482)840312121,51919,503142,174
Service Calls (500-571)2,8461,031225,94361,056290,876
Good Intent Calls (600-672)6,3201,668298,001116,977422,966
False Alarm and False Calls (700-751)1,670698242,82148,326293,515
Severe Weather and Natural Disaster Calls (800-815)11911,1431,10612,269
Special Incident Type Calls (900-911)1114111,1842,29513,631
Blank Incident Type141129830353

Top 5 incident types
for confirmed or suspected responses

  1. EMS call, excluding vehicle accident with injury.
  2. Medical assist, assist EMS crew.
  3. Dispatched and cancelled en route.
  4. Emergency medical service, other.
  5. Rescue, EMS call, other.

Top 5 property use
for confirmed or suspected responses

  1. One- or two-family dwelling.
  2. Multifamily dwellings.
  3. 24-hour care nursing homes, four or more persons.
  4. Residential, other.
  5. Hospital – medical or psychiatric.

About the COVID-19 Special Study

The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) is using the NFIRS to conduct a national-level Special Study on fire department responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of the study is to determine if COVID-19 was a factor during the response.

Fire departments that report to NFIRS have been asked to use the NFIRS Special Study, “COVID-19 Discovery,” on all incidents. When a member of a department fills out an NFIRS report, the Special Study is a section in which they can answer the question, “Was COVID-19 a factor in this incident?” The available responses are 1-Yes, COVID-19 was suspected; 2-Yes, COVID-19 was confirmed; 3-No, COVID-19 was not a factor; and, 4-Unknown.

USFA is monitoring the COVID-19 Special Study incidents to determine the severity and to bring awareness to the nationwide response from the fire service to COVID-19. The incidents on this page include both released and unreleased incidents. Unreleased incidents may not be complete and are still pending final authorization from the states. Data for 2020 is still pending since some reports are incomplete and since some fire departments do not submit reports on a regular basis. Departments may submit monthly or quarterly and some departments may not report until the end of the year.

Learn more about the COVID-19 Special Study