U.S. fire statistics

Trends | Causes | Where fires occur | Who fire impacts | Firefighters and fire departments

The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United States. Armed with this data, the fire service can use it to:

in 2017
from 2008
in 2017
from 2008
in 2017
from 2008
$ Loss$23.0 billion
in 2017
* from 2008
* Adjusted to 2017 dollars; includes $10 billion in losses from Northern California wildfires.
See: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on U.S. fire loss.

* Adjusted to 2017 dollars

What are the causes of fires?

Read our reports on the causes of residential, nonresidential, vehicle and outside fires, and fires in other places.


Residential fires

Fire estimate summaries of residential buildings, fire trends and causes (2007-2016) PDF 2.4 MB

Thirteen summaries describing trends in U.S. residential fires. Included are summaries for deaths, injuries, dollar loss, and leading residential fire causes.

Residential building fire causes in 2016 364,300 fires (estimated)
50.3% Cooking
9.6% Heating
6.6% Unintentional, careless
6.5% Electrical malfunction

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Unintentional, careless6.6%
Electrical malfunction6.5%
Open flame4.3%
Other heat3.3%
Equipment malfunction1.8%
Cause under investigation1.4%
Other equipment1.2%
Playing with heat source0.4%

Total does not equal 100 percent due to rounding.

Causes of fatal residential building fires in 2016
1,800 fatal fires (estimated)
Causes of residential building fires resulting in injuries in 2016
7,000 fires resulting in injuries (estimated)

Nonresidential fires

Fire estimate summaries of nonresidential buildings, fire trends and causes (2007-2016) PDF 1.3 MB

Nine summaries describing trends in U.S. nonresidential fires. Included are summaries for number of fires, dollar loss and leading nonresidential fire causes.

Nonresidential building fire causes in 2016 96,800 fires (estimated)
29.9% Cooking
11.0% Unintentional, careless
9.3% Intentional

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Unintentional, careless11.0%
Electrical malfunction7.4%
Open flame5.9%
Other heat5.1%
Other equipment4.7%
Equipment malfunction3.4%
Cause under investigation1.6%
Playing with heat source0.3%

Causes of vehicle and outside fires

Causes of vehicle fires
204,000 vehicle fires in 2016
Causes of outside fires
558,500 outside fires in 2016

Where do fires occur?

Read our reports on where fires occur.


Property types

“Residential” is the leading property type for fire deaths (73.2%), fire injuries (76.5%) and fire dollar loss (54.7%).

Fires by general property type (2016)
29.1% Residential
8.3% Nonresidential
14.3% Vehicle
42.8% Outside
5.6% Other

Who does fire impact the most?

Read our reports on who fire impacts the most.

2016California, Texas and Georgialed the nation in number of fire deaths.
West Virginia, Alaska and Alabamahad the most deaths per million population in the U.S.

View national and state statistics on fire deaths | Browse state fire profiles


More men die and are injured
in fires than women.

National fire death rate: 10.9

National fire injury rate: 45.3

per million population

Gender and race

African American males (19.7) and American Indian males (18.6) have the highest fire death rates per million population.


People ages 85 or older have the highest fire death rate (37.3).

People ages 30-34 have the highest fire injury rate (59.0).

More information on fire death rates for older adults and children.

Download fire death and injury data by gender, age and race

Firefighters and fire departments

Read our reports on fire departments and firefighters.

Fire departments

There were an estimated 29,727 fire departments in 2015 (all career: 9 percent; mostly career: 6 percent; mostly volunteer: 18 percent; all volunteer: 67 percent).

See: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on fire departments.


There were an estimated 1,160,450 firefighters in 2015 (career: 345,600; volunteer: 814,850).

See: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on firefighters.

On-duty firefighter deaths in 2017

48 Volunteer
33 Career
6 Wildland agency
87Firefighters died while on duty.
50Firefighters died from heart attacks.
40Firefighters died from activities related to an emergency incident.
17Firefighters died from activities at a fire scene.
12Firefighters died while participating in training activities.
11Firefighters died while responding to or returning from emergency incidents.

Firefighter injuries

24,495 firefighters were injured on the fireground in 2017.
Visit: National Fire Protection Association for more statistics on firefighter injuries.

Report: Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries Reported to the National Fire Incident Reporting System (2012–2014) August 2016, PDF 806 KB

How we calculate fire loss statistics

These documents describe the data sources and methodology we use to calculate our fire loss estimates.

Topical Fire Report Series

Data sources we use to calculate statistics

More resources for statistics